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Gerald M. LaPorte, M. He trained with and served as the Chief Research Forensic Beard with the United States Secret Service and was responsible for maintaining the largest tattooed free collection of writing sites in the world. LaPorte is an active member in numerous free organizations and has provided expert testimony in international, federal, and state courts. Forensic Ink Dating. Ink Testing and Paper Examinations How can ink analysis and paper examinations help determine when a document was produced?
The age of a historical manuscript can be an invaluable source of information for paleographers and historians. The process of automatic manuscript age detection has inherent complexities, which are compounded by the lack of suitable datasets for algorithm testing. This paper presents a dataset of historical handwritten Arabic manuscripts designed specifically to test state-of-the-art authorship and age detection algorithms.
Qatar National Library has been the main source of manuscripts for this dataset while the remaining manuscripts are open source. The dataset consists of over images taken from various handwritten Arabic manuscripts spanning fourteen centuries. In addition, a sparse representation-based approach for dating historical Arabic manuscript is also proposed.
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Ink dating in particular is a highly complex challenge in questioned document R. A. Merrill and E. G. Bartick, J. Forensic Sci., , 37, — Search.
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Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i. There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools.
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Abstract Ink dating is a significant problem in terms of forensic science. Ballpoint pens are generally used as writing tools on the documents.
Zoe Strimpel does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. Equally old, of course, is the failure inherent in all such attempts to do so. All of which makes the current trend among the ever-renewing stock of dating entrepreneurs both amusing and ludicrous in equal measure.
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Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper.
The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.
The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating. This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.
Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical. The next step would be the most basic ink dating form of thin layer chromatography TLC testing to determine if two or more inks are the same or different formulations. In order to do this the following steps are taken:. Ink dating — chemical tag: The detection of a chemical date tag can disclose the exact year that the ink being examined was manufactured.